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Inhibitions of cotton germination and early seedling growth by cover crop residues

Author: Avat Shekoofa, Crop Physiologist No Comments

Authors: Avat Shekoofa, Sara Safikhan, Tyson Raper, and Shawn Butler

 Cover crops have been used to suppress weeds, reduce erosion, and increase water infiltration for many years. While cover crops can improve soil quality and physical properties, integration of cover crops into row crop production-specifically cotton- remains challenging. One potential negative impact on cotton growth may come from allelopathy.  Allelopathy is defined as the direct or indirect harmful or beneficial effects of one plant on another through the production of chemical compounds that escape into the environment (Fig. 1). Although allelopathic toxicity of cover crops can suppress weeds and therefore assist in weed control, they may also suppress cotton germination and reduce stand. Little is currently known about the actual allelopathic effects of cover crops on germination and seedling growth of cotton. Proper selection of cover crop species and termination timing could potentially reduce the allelopathic toxicity which negatively impacts cotton germination and early seedling growth.

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Tennessee Weekly Crop & Weather Report

Author: Chuck Danehower, Extension Area Specialist - Farm Management No Comments

CORN HARVEST CONTINUES AT RAPID PACE

Spotty showers did little to slow field work. Corn harvest continued to proceed rapidly with many producers reporting better than average yields. Cotton harvest began on a limited scale, while soybean harvest picked up somewhat. Hay producers were busy with their final cutting for the season. Pasture conditions improved slightly as temperatures dropped a few degrees. There were 5.9 days suitable for field work. Topsoil moisture rated 3 percent very short, 23 percent short, 72 percent adequate, and 2 percent surplus. Subsoil moisture rated 8 percent very short, 25 percent short, 66 percent adequate, and 1 percent surplus. Continue reading at TN_09_17_18.  The U.S. Crop Progress report can be read at CropProg-09-17-2018.

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Tennessee Market Highlights

Author: Chuck Danehower, Extension Area Specialist - Farm Management No Comments

Corn and soybeans were down; cotton and wheat were mixed for the week.

The major news this week was USDA’s updated yield estimates. Nationally, corn, soybean, and upland cotton yields were estimated at 181.3 bu/acre, 52.8 bu/acre, and 881 lb/acre. Corn and soybean estimates were revised up 2.9 bu/acre and 1.2 bu acre from last month – if realized both would be all-time records. Upland cotton yield was decreased 14 lb/ acre from last month.

The larger than anticipated, corn and soybean yields contributed to December corn and November soybeans setting new contract lows of $3.48/bu and $8.21/bu. With the large crop headed towards market and no foreseeable end to trade disruptions a further leg down in futures prices cannot be ruled out at this time. Continue reading at Tennessee Market Highlights. Comment on the September 12th USDA WASDE report and a Profitability Update looking to 2019 can be found at Monthly Crop Comments.

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Taproot Decline: A new soybean disease for Tennessee

Author: Rachel Guyer, Plant Pathology Research Associate No Comments

Taproot decline (TRD) is a new disease to us in Tennessee and other states in the Southeast. A member of the genus (Xylaria) was first isolated from soybean in Ethiopia in the ‘70s , however researchers at that time did not confirm if this fungus was the pathogenic species that is now affecting soybeans across the southeastern US. The first report of taproot decline as a pathogen of soybean was published just last year, with sightings of this disease first occurring in 2007. Other states that have reported cases of TRD include Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Missouri with an increasingly northern range. A production field in Saulsbury (Hardeman County) was confirmed to have soybeans affected by TRD in August 2017, and two additional research fields in Gibson and Madison counties were confirmed in August 2018. Foliar symptoms were initially spotted at growth stage R6 (i.e. full seed); these foliar symptoms can easily be confused with those due to other diseases like sudden death syndrome and stem canker, and closer observation is needed for disease Continue reading

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September 1 Tennessee Crop Production Forecast

Author: Chuck Danehower, Extension Area Specialist - Farm Management No Comments

RELEASED: September 12, 2018

September 1 Tennessee Crop Production Forecast

Corn production in Tennessee is forecast at 127 million bushels,  unchanged from the August forecast and up 5 percent from the previous crop. Yield was estimated at a record 174.0 bushels per acre, unchanged from last month and up 3.0 bushels from the 2017 level. Acres for harvest as grain were estimated at 730,000 acres, up 20,000 acres from 2017. U.S. corn production is forecast at 14.8 billion bushels, up 2 percent from the August forecast and up 2 percent from 2017. Based on conditions as of September 1, yields are expected to average 181.3 bushels per acre, up 2.9 bushels from last month and up 4.7 bushels from 2017. Area harvested for grain is forecast at 81.8 million acres, unchanged from the August forecast and down 1 percent from 2017. Continue reading at SepCrop18_TN.

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